Leading edge pathology conducted by a dedicated team of highly trained, skilled and specialised scientists


Our Sheffield Protein Reference Unit (PRU) and Immunology Department has a long established expertise in the analysis and clinical interpretation of protein and antibody assays.  Our extensive test repertoire includes tumour markers, prenatal downs screening, specific proteins, auto-antibodies, allergy testing and immunodeficiency investigation. We are continually adding new tests to our repertoire.  The PRU is part of a Supra-Regional Assay Service.

We provide an analytical and interpretive service for the investigation and diagnosis of immune mediated diseases and measurement of specific proteins to hospitals and laboratories across the UK.

We have specialist expertise in many areas including:

  • Alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotyping and genotyping
  • Complement system analysis (quantitative, functional and C4 genotyping)
  • Functional antibody testing for assessing vaccine responses
  • Flow cytometry for immune deficiency
  • Allergy - over 800 allergens available
  • Tumour markers
  • Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT)
  • Pre-natal foetal aneuploidy screening
  • Immunoglobulin analysis by electrophoresis of serum and urine samples
  • Analysis of CSF for oligoclonal bands
  • Specific proteins including immunoglobulin free light chains
  • Comprehensive range of autoantibody tests
  • We are currently the only UK NHS laboratory to offer testing for urine prostaglandins, urine methylhistamine and bradykinin.

We are a UKAS accredited medical laboratory No. 8494. 

Our full compliance ensures that we subscribe to accredited External Quality Assurance (EQA) schemes for all our tests where they are available or an alternative (inter-laboratory comparison) if there is no EQA scheme. 

Summaries of EQA performance can be provided to assure prospective users of our continued high quality service.  Our policy is to apply for extensions to scope for all new tests as they are added to the repertoires. 

“I must take this opportunity to thank Sheffield Immunology for their support and the quality of service we have received.  This has significantly improved the service for our patients over the past 2 years. We approached Sheffield at a time when we needed a fast resolution and have been grateful for your team’s responsiveness throughout this period.  Very many thanks for all your help and support.”  -  Milton Keynes University NHS Foundation Trust

The department has a Consultant led team of Clinicians and Clinical Scientists who provide high quality interpretive advice on test results.

If you would like to know more about how we can help you, please contact us by telephone on 0114 271 5552 or email us at

Department Specific Tests

Acetylcholine Receptor Anitbodies, AchR, ACR

Acid Glycoprotein (OROSOMUCOID) / AGP

Adalimumab Antibodies / Anti Drug Antibodies (ADA)

Adalimumab Drug Level, Trough Adalimumab, HUMIRA, Anti TNF Alpha

Adrenal Antibodies (see endocrine autoantibodies)

AFP Allotype - Lectin Binding Index, Fucosylation Index, Yolk Sac AFP

ALEX Allergy Chip ( Allergy Explorer )

Allergen Specific IgE

Allergen Specific IgG Bee/Wasp Venom

ALPHA - Foetoprotein (AFP) (Tumour Marker)

ALPHA 1 Antitrypsin PCR Genotype (Anti-Trypsin)

ALPHA 1 Antitrypsin Phenotype, PI Typing (Anti-Trypsin)

ALPHA 1 Microglobulin, ALPHA - 1MG, Protein HC

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT)

Alpha-2 Macroglobulin

Alternative Pathway Haemolytic Complement (AP50)

Amyloid A Protein, SAA

Anaesthetic/Drug Adverse Reactions (NARCOS)

ANCA, IIF Screen Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA HEP2) (ANF)

Apolipoprotein A-I and B

Aspergillus ABPA Precipitins

Autoimmune Encephalitis Screen (NMDAR, CASPR2, LGI1, AMPAR1/2, DPPX and GABA Receptor Antibodies)

Basal Ganglia Antibodies

Basophil Activation Test (BAT)

Bence Jones Protein (BJP), Urine Free Light Chains, BJP (24 hour excretion)

Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies IgG and IgM (B2GP)

Beta 2 Interferon Neutralising Antibody

Beta 2 Microglobulin (B2M)

C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Quantitational and Functional Level)


C1Q Antibodies


C3 and C4

C3 Nephritic Factor (C3NEF)

C3d Levels, C3 Breakdown Product

C4 Genotype

C5-C9 (C5, C6, C7, C8, C9), Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)


CA15-3, Polymorphous Epithelial Mucin


Caeruloplasmin, Wilsons / Cirrhosis Screen (Copper Oxidase) / Ferroxidase


Candida Precipitins

Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT)

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Pancreatic Cyst Fluid

Cardiac Muscle Antibodies

Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA) IgG and IgM

CD11C and CD123 Dentritic Cell Analysis (DCML Screen)

CD40 & CD40 Ligand

Centromere Antibody, IIF, Kinetechore

Cerebellum (Purkinje) Cell Antibody IIF Screen (Hu, Ri, Yo, Tr, CV2, Ma/Ta), Neuronal Antibody

Cholinesterase Phenotype

Chromogranin A (CGA)

Classical Pathway Haemolytic Complement Assay (CH50)

Complement - Factor H / Factor I


CSF TAU Protein (Beta 2 Transferrin) for Rhinorrhoea

Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) Antibody

CYFRA 21-1

Diphtheria Antibodies (Functional Antibodies)

DNA Antibodies, Double-Stranded IgG Crithidia Assay

DNA Antibodies, Double-Stranded, IgG dsDNA

ENA Antibodies Screen

ENA Antibodies, ENA Specific Types, RO (SS-A)/LA (SS-B) /SM/RNP/SCL-70/JO-1

Endocrine Antibodies (Adrenal, Ovarian, Testes)

Endomysial Antibodies (IgA)

Endothelial Cell Antibodies

Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP)

Factor B

Faecal Calprotectin

Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT)

First Trimester Down's Screening, Combined Test (PAPPA FBHCG) Trisomy 13 and Trisomy 18 Risk Factors

Ganglioside Antibodies GD1a, GD1b, GT1b (IgG or IgM)

Ganglioside Antibodies GM1 (IgG or IgM)

Ganglioside Antibodies GQ1b (IgG or IgM)

Gastric Parietal Cell Antibody

Gliadin Antibodies (IgG and IgA)

Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies (GBM)

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies (GAD, GAD65)

Glycine Receptor Antibodies


Haemophilus Influenzae B (HiB Antibodies, Functional Antibodies)

Haptoglobin Levels

HEP 2 Antigen Blot (SS-A, SS-B, Sm, RNP, SCL-70, JO-1, PM-SCL, CENT B, CENT C, AMA-M2, RIB-P, RO52)

High Sensitivity C Reactive Protein (hsCRP)

Histone Antibodies



Human Anti-Mouse Antibodies, HAMA

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin / LDH

IA2 Antibodies, Anti Tyrosine Phosphatase Antibodies

IgA Antibodies

IgA Antibodies

IgA Tissue Transglutaminase 6 Antibodies (TTG6, TG6)

IgG Subclasses

IgG Tissue Transglutaminase 6 Antibodies (TTG6, TG6)

Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip (ISAC)

Immunoglobulin (IgG IgA IgM) Levels with Electrophoresis

Immunoglobulin D (IgD)

Immunoglobulin Immunofixation

Infliximab Antibodies, Anti-Drug Antibodies, ADA

Infliximab Drug Level, Trough Infliximab, ANTI-TNF ALPHA

Inhibin A (Tumour Marker)

Inhibin B

Insulin Antibodies IgG

Interleukin 6 (IL-6)

Intrinsic Factor Antibody (IFA)

Islet Cell Antibody (ICA)

LGI1 and CASPR2 Antibodies (Limbic Encephalitis screen), (Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1, Contactin-associated protein 2)

Liver and Gastric Parietal Cell Antibodies, LKS Substrate ( ANA, AMA, SMA, LKM, GPC )

Liver Blot (AMA-M2, M2-E3, Sp100, PML Ag, gp210, LKM-1, LC-1,SLA/LP, RO52)

Lymphocyte PHA/OKT3 Response, Lymphocyte Proliferation

Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL / MBP)

Memory B Cell Analysis

Milk Antibodies IgG

Mitochondrial Antibody, PBC Screen (AMA)

Muscle Specific Kinase Antibodies

Myelin Associated Glycoprotein Antibodies (ANTI-MAG)

Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibodies (MOG Antibodies)

Myelin Sheath / Myelin Associated Glycoprotein by IIF

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Antibodies


Myositis Screen (Mi-2alpha, Mi-2beta, TIF1-gamma, MDA5, NXP2, SAE1, Ku, PM-Scl100, PM-Scl75, Jo-1, SRP, PL-7, PL-12, EJ, OJ, Ro-52)

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibodies ( NMDAR )

Neuromyelitis Optica IgG Antibodies/Aquaporin 4 Antibodies/NMO

Neuronal Blot (Amphiphysin, CV2.1, PNMA2 [Ma2/Ta], RI, YO, HU)

Neurone Specific Enolase ( NSE ) Gamma-Enolase

Neutrophil Function : Di-Hydrorhodamine Test ( DHR )

Oligoclonal Bands, CSF IgG Oligoclonal Bands and IgG/ALB Ratio

Ovarian Antibodies

Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Antibodies. Skin Antibodies.

Phospholipase A2 Antibody (PLA2R) Antiphospholipase A2 Antibody MPLA2R

Placental Alkaline Phosphatase (PLAP)

Pneumococcal Antibodies (Functional Antibodies)

Pneumococcal Serotypes

Precipitins, Avian (Budgie, Pigeon)

Precipitins, Farmers Lung / Micropolysporum / Thermoactinomyces

Primary Immunodeficiency (PID) Panel

Procollagen Type III Peptide, P3NP

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2)

Prostaglandin DM (PGDM)

Prostaglandin F2 Alpha (PGDF)

Proteinase 3 (PR3) Antibodies

PSA Index (PSA Ratio Free to Bound)

PSA, Total Serum

Quantiferon (Gamma Interferon For TB)

Renal Biopsy, Immunofluorescent (Native or Transplant Kidney)

Retinol Binding Protein

Rheumatoid Factor Total Antibody (IgM)

RNA Polymerase III Antibodies (RNA Polymerase 3)

Salivary Duct Antibody and Salivary Gland Antibody

SCID Screen (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency screen) by Flow Cytometry

Second Trimester Down's Screening. Quadruple Test (Total HCG, AFP, UE3, INHIBIN A).

Serum Free Light Chains (SFLC)

Serum Paraprotein

Skeletal Muscle Antibodies

Skin Antibodies: BP180, BP230, Desmoglein 1 (DSG1) and Desmoglein 3 (DSG3)

Split Skin Antibodies

Systemic Sclerosis blot (Antibodies to: Scl-70, CENP-A, CENP-B, RPII, RP155, Fibrillarin (U3 RNP), NOR90, Th/To, PM-Scl75, Ku, PDGFR (platelet derived growth factor receptor), Ro52).

Tetanus Antibodies (Functional Antibodies)

Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain containing 7A (THSD7A)


Thyroglobulin Antibodies

Thyroid Microsomal (Peroxidase) Antibodies, TPO

Thyroid Receptor Antibodies (TSH Receptor Antibodies), TRAb.

Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody (TTG) (IgG and IgA)

Toll Like Receptors (TLR)

Total IgE


Transthyretin, Pre Albumin


Urine Gluten Immunogenic Peptides

Urine Methyl Histamine (UMH)

Urine Protein Selectivity / Clearance Profile ( IgG / Albumin Ratio ) / Protein Clearance Ratio

Vasculitic Screen (C3, C4, Immunoglobulins, ANCA, Hep2 ( ANA ), RF)

Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Antibodies

ZnT8 Antibodies